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How to Write a Novel - 20 Master Plots by Tobias

Welcome to week  of 52 Weeks of 52 Kick Ass Writing Tools

This one I have to give all the credit to Ronald Tobias, who wrote an amazing book called

20 Master Plots:  And How to Build Them

So why exactly do I consider this a Kick-Ass Tool?

Knowing what you are writing - I mean really having control of it - is half of the battle.   Let me give you an example.  I was working with a screenwriter a few months back that was convinced he was writing a quest or a hero’s journey about a man set on saving his villainous father from a foreign government.  Something wasn’t quite working - he couldn’t get a handle on how his main character was coming across.  He was confused because his hero was acting more like a bad guy at times - carrying out vigilante justice in wild and wacky ways. I gave the writer this list of plots.  He didn’t want to read past the first one stating, “It’s a typical hero’s quest, I told you that.”

I encouraged him to take a few minutes to look over the list and see if maybe another plot was speaking to him.  He read the list, hung his head and immediate said, “Revenge.  I am actually writing a revenge story.”  He continued, “My story is not so much about the hero saving his father as much as it is about getting revenge for the death of his mother.”  It was a huge epiphany and it freed him up to fully go outside the law down the path of  revenge, rather than stay strictly on the hero’s path of saving someone.

Another writer thought he was writing a love story, but it was coming out much darker and sinister than he had anticipated.  The story dealt with adultery and severe judgement from American Society in the 1900′s.  When he took a look at the list he realized he was writing a forbidden love story.  This opened him up to focus more heavily on some of the twisted and crippling views going on in society at that time, (which hadn’t made as much sense to him when he viewed it as a typical love story).

While the book will guide you through the process of how to build these plots in more detail, starting here - right here - and just knowing what kind of plot you are writing will lead to clearer, cleaner writing.  You may also realize that though your initial intention was to write one type of story - another type of story is pouring out of you.  The first step in controlling that beast that is naming it.

Have at it.  (And thanks Mr. Tobias!)

20 Master Plots – by Ronald Tobias

1)   Quest

The hero searches for something, someone, or somewhere. In reality, they may be searching for themselves, with the outer journey mirrored internally. They may be joined by a companion, who takes care of minor detail and whose limitations contrast with the hero’s greater qualities.

2)   Adventure

The protagonist goes on an adventure, much like a quest, but with less of a focus on the end goal or the personal development of hero. In the adventure, there is more action for action’s sake.

3)   Pursuit

In this plot, the focus is on chase, with one person chasing another (and perhaps with multiple and alternating chase). The pursued person may be often cornered and somehow escape, so that the pursuit can continue. Depending on the story, the pursued person may be caught or may escape.

4)    Rescue

In the rescue, somebody is captured, who must be released by the hero or heroic party. A triangle may form between the protagonist, the antagonist and the victim. There may be a grand duel between the protagonist and antagonist, after which the victim is freed.

5)   Escape

In a kind of reversal of the rescue, a person must escape, perhaps with little help from others. In this, there may well be elements of capture and unjust imprisonment. There may also be a pursuit after the escape.

6)   Revenge

In the revenge plot, a wronged person seeks retribution against the person or organization which has betrayed or otherwise harmed them or loved ones, physically or emotionally. This plot depends on moral outrage for gaining sympathy from the audience.

7)   The Riddle

The riddle plot entertains the audience and challenges them to find the solution before the hero, who steadily and carefully uncovers clues and hence the final solution. The story may also be spiced up with terrible consequences if the riddle is not solved in time.

8)   Rivalry

In rivalry, two people or groups are set as competitors that may be good hearted or as bitter enemies. Rivals often face a zero-sum game, in which there can only be one winner, for example where they compete for a scarce resource or the heart of a single other person.

9)   Underdog

The underdog plot is similar to rivalry, but where one person (usually the hero) has less advantage and might normally be expected to lose. The underdog usually wins through greater tenacity and determination (and perhaps with the help of friendly others).


In the temptation plot, a person is tempted by something that, if taken, would somehow diminish them, often morally. Their battle is thus internal, fighting against their inner voices which tell them to succumb.


In this fantastic plot, the protagonist is physically transformed, perhaps into beast or perhaps into some spiritual or alien form. The story may then continue with the changed person struggling to be released or to use their new form for some particular purpose. Eventually, the hero is released, perhaps through some great act of love.


The transformation plot leads to change of a person in some way, often driven by unexpected circumstance or event. After setbacks, the person learns and usually becomes something better.

13) Maturation

The maturation plot is a special form of transformation, in which a person grows up. The veils of younger times are lost as they learn and grow. Thus the rudderless youth finds meaning or perhaps an older person re-finds their purpose.

14) Love

The love story is a perennial tale of lovers finding one another, perhaps through a background of danger and woe. Along the way, they become separated in some way, but eventually come together in a final joyous reunion.

15) Forbidden Love

The story of forbidden love happens when lovers are breaking some social rules, such as in an adulterous relationship or worse. The story may thus turn around their inner conflicts and the effects of others discovering their tryst.

16) Sacrifice

In sacrifice, the nobler elements of the human sprit are extolled as someone gives much more than most people would give. The person may not start with the intent of personal sacrifice and may thus be an unintentional hero, thus emphasizing the heroic nature of the choice and act.

17) Discovery

The discovery plot is strongly focused on the character of the hero who discovers something great or terrible and hence must make a difficult choice. The importance of the discovery might not be known at first and the process of revelation be important to the story.

18) Wretched Excess

In stories of wretched excess, the protagonist goes beyond normally accepted behavior as the world looks on, horrified, perhaps in realization that ‘there before the grace of God go I’ and that the veneer of civilization is indeed thin.

19) Ascension

In the ascension plot, the protagonist starts in the virtual gutter, as a sinner of some kind. The plot then shows their ascension to becoming a better person, often in response to stress that would defeat a normal person. Thus they achieve deserved heroic status.

20) Descension

In the opposite to ascension, a person of initially high standing descends to the gutter and moral turpitude, perhaps sympathetically as they are unable to handle stress and perhaps just giving in to baser vices.


To purchase the book or read more CLICK HERE 

About the Author

Ronald B. Tobias has spent his career as a writer moving from genre to genre, first as a short story writer, then as an author of fiction and nonfiction books and finally as a writer and producer of documentaries for public television. He is currently a professor in the Department of Media and Theatre Arts at Montana State University and the author of The Insider’s Guide to Writing for Screen and Television. He lives in Bozeman, Montana.

To download the more detailed Checklist PDF from Writers Digest CLICK HERE


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